Literature review on depressive disorders

Adolescent girls also experience more negative life events than adolescent boys. Proinflammatory cytokines induced by adipose tissue may affect the treatment response of patients with depressive disorders through these signaling pathways.

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The authors did not find any differences in antidepressant treatment outcomes across the BMI classes. In addition, the role of estrogen should be considered as a modulating factor of sex differences in treatment outcome to different classes of antidepressants in obese patients.

Among three studies reporting negative associations between obesity and antidepressant responses, two [ 1617 ] included information regarding the influence of age and sex. However, not all studies support a negative effect of body weight on antidepressant responses.

In that study, we analyzed data from a nationwide prospective study of Korean patients with depressive disorders. In week 28, there were no differences in depression outcome or functional measures among groups.

A literature review of heart rate variability in depressive and bipolar disorders

Stimulation of the extra-synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate NMDA glutamate receptor not only causes excitotoxic damage to the neurons and astrocytes, but also results in a decrease in synthesis of BDNF [ ]. The most common types of treatment for depression are cognitive behavioural therapy, pharmacotherapy, and a combination of both.

Antidepressants, such as fluoxetine and imipramine, and lithium were demonstrated to increase Akt activity [, ]. The odds ratio of treatment resistance for high BMI vs. In that study by Uher et al. These numbers show that culture play a significant role in diagnosis of depression. The mediating role of adipocytokines on antidepressant responses in depressive disorders could be related to diminished levels of BDNF [ ].

However, the role of sex in the association between obesity and poor improvement was significant when neurovegetative symptoms were considered as an outcome. Of the patients included in the study population, In preclinical and clinical studies, estrogen administration enhanced the antidepressant effect of SSRIs [ 575859 ].

Apart from cognitive factors, behavioural factors like learned helplessness and insufficient positive reinforcement along with major life stressors like death, divorce, and separation also contribute to depression.

But, as mentioned before, genes and environment do no function in isolation. These two disorders also had the highest percentage of severity. BMC Medicine, 9, Although there are supporting results, the directions of the findings are inconsistent.

Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Local release of cytokines can also stimulate peripheral afferent nerve fibers that innervate peripheral tissues, such as the vagus nerve, ultimately activate microglia to produce cytokines in the brain [ 91 ].

The effect of obesity on treatment resistance was not significant in males or premenopausal females. Activation of this enzyme leads to increased consumption of tryptophan, thus reducing the availability of serotonergic neurotransmission and inducing the production of detrimental tryptophan catabolites with neurotoxic effects [ ].

Moreover, lowered serum levels of antioxidants, such as coenzyme Q10 and zinc, could be biological markers of treatment resistance to antidepressant therapy [].

Mood disorders and complementary and alternative medicine: a literature review

Association of somatic symptoms with depression and anxiety in clinical patients of general hospitals in Guanghzhou, China. The poor antidepressant treatment outcome of depressive disorders was associated with higher glucose levels [ 15 ], low HDL-cholesterol levels, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperglycemia [ 17 ].

With the advent of epigenetics, gene and environment interaction has an impact on depression. The net result of these changes is loss of astrocytes and oligodendroglia and neuronal apoptosis, particularly in the subgenual prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus, brain regions thought to be crucially involved in the genesis of the symptoms of depressive disorder [ ].

Cicchetti and Toth looked at a large body of research to highlight the developmental trajectory and risk factors of depression. Conceptualization and Manifestation of depression in an Asian context: Patients with atypical subtype depression tend to have a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome, and in particular its obesity-related disturbances [ 25 ], and show higher inflammatory levels of inflammatory markers [ 2021 ].

As the subjects of most studies included in the present review were treated with various antidepressants, it is difficult to interpret the effects of antidepressant classes.

An important aspect of person-oriented approach to depressive disorders focuses on possible causes of gender differences in depression. The frequency, intensity, and burden of side effects were also not significantly different across groups in week 12, after adjustment.

RUNNINGHEAD: PERSPECTIVESIN MAJOR DEPRESSIVEDISORDER(MDD) 1 Current research and perspectives in major depressive disorder: A literature review Cooper John Feild Southern Utah University 2. PERSPECTIVES IN MDD 2 Abstract Major depressive disorder (MDD) is increasing in prevalence throughout the United States.

role of interventions in preventing depressive disorders in high-risk groups. Several new directions for future research on the prevention of depression in high-risk groups were outlined. lar disorders, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia (Alvares etal., ; Gorman and Sloan, This review examines the current literature which explores the associations of the ANS with both major depressive dis-A literature review of heart.

Depression and Pain Comorbidity A Literature Review.using the combined search terms depression or depressive disorders and pain. Articles were also identified by a manual search of bibliographies from all retrieved articles. Some studies 35, and a literature review by Linton have suggested that depression has a greater.

While the literature relating to the technical process of heart rate variability and aspects of depressive disorders has been reviewed in the past, research relating to both depressive and bipolar disorders has not been comprehensively reviewed.

CHAPTER II. LITERATURE REVIEW Definitions Generalized anxiety disorders (Anxiety Disorder, GAD) is a condition of a disorder characterized by excessive anxiety and worry and irrational sometimes unrealistic to events.

Literature review on depressive disorders
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Prevalence and clinical course of depression: A review - ScienceDirect